Animal Husbandry of Nagaland
- Nagaland, the smallest hilly state situated at the extreme northeastern end of India, lies between 25° 6′ and 27° 4′ latitude, North of Equator and between the Longitudinal line 93° 20’ E and 95° 15’E.
- The state shares its boundary with Assam on the West, Myanmar on the East, Arunachal Pradesh and parts of Assam on the North and Manipur on the South
- Rearing livestock mainly as the source of meat is found to be a traditional practice among the Nagas.
- In the tribal community livestock is also a form of wealth which often serves as a status symbol and sometimes serves even as dowry in marriages as well as sacrificial offer in religious ceremonies.
- These facts clearly establish that livestock development is of crucial importance to Nagaland where agriculture and Animal Husbandry of Nagaland provide the mainstay to about 95% of aggregate population.
- The main agricultural activity of farmers in Northeast India (including Nagaland) is the mixed crop-livestock system characterised with low inputs and outputs.
- Livestock is an important component of mixed farming system due to preference of meat in the diets of people in the region.
- The area is known as meat consuming zone of India.
- Livestock, especially pig and poultry, is a key livelihood among the farming rural families and provides food for consumption, sources of income and capital and socio-cultural needs.
- All the North-eastern states (including Nagaland) are highly dependent on imports to meet their demand for eggs, fish, meat and milk.
- Thus, the pig sector is undoubtedly of major importance for rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation both at household and the state levels.
- In a study undertaken by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in 2007, the study revealed that there is an increasing demand for livestock products in the region.
- These suggest that livestock rearing has been largely untapped and has the potential to improve the livelihoods among poor farmers in the region.
- Twenty eight per cent of total pig population of India is found in the region.
- Pig rearing is very promising in the region due to high demand for pig meat within the tribal people of the NE region.
- Thus, the pig sector is undoubtedly of major importance for rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation.
Goat Farming of Animal Husbandry of Nagaland
- Goat is known as ‘Poor man’s cow’ in India and is a very important component in dry land farming system.
- Marginal or undulating lands unsuitable for other types of animals like cow or buffalo, goat is the best alternative.
- With very low investments goat rearing can be made in to a profitable venture for small and marginal farmers.
Sheep farming of Animal Husbandry of Nagaland
- Few countries in the world have no sheep.
- They are found in tropical countries and in the arctic, in hot climates and in the cold, on the desert and in humid areas.
- There are over 800 breeds of sheep in the world, in a variety of sizes, shapes, types and colours.
- Sheep were domesticated long before the dawn of recorded history.
- Wool fibres have been found in remains of primitive villages of Switzerland that date back an estimated 20000 years.
- Egyptian sculpture dating 4000-5000 B.C. portrays the importance of this species to people.
- Much mention is made in the Bible of flocks, shepherds, sacrificial lambs, and garments made of wool.
- The Roman empire prized sheep, anointed them with special oils, and combed their fleece to produce fine quality fibres that were woven into fabric for the togas of the elite.
- Perhaps the first ruminants domesticated by man along with goats, sheep are a very valuable and important asset to mankind.
- Domesticated sheep : phylum Chordata (backbone), class Mammalia (suckle their young), order Artiodactyla (hooved, even-toed), family Bovidae(ruminants), genus Ovis (domestic and wild sheep), and species Ovisaries
Rabbit Farming of Animal Husbandry of Nagaland
Why Rabbit Farming?
- With available small investment and in a small place rabbit farming gives more income
- Rabbits eat ordinary feed and convert them into a protein rich high quality meat
- Apart from meat production they can also be reared for hide and fur.
Rabbit Farming is for whom?
- For landless farmers, uneducated youth and women, rabbit farming gives an additional income as a part time job
Advantages of Rabbit Farming
- By rabbit rearing one can produce a quality protein rich meat for his own family
- Rabbits can be fed with easily available leaves, waste vegetables, grains available in the home
- Growth rate in broiler rabbits is very high. They attain 2 kgs at the age of three months
- Litter size (Number of young ones born/ kindling) in rabbits is high (around 8-12)
- When compared to the other meats rabbit meat contain high protein (21%) and less fat (8%). So this meat is suitable for all age groups from adults to children
PIG FARMING of Animal Husbandry of Nagaland
Advantages of pig rearing
- Pigs convert inedible feeds, forages, certain grain byproducts obtained from mills, meat by products, damaged feeds and garbage into valuable nutritious meat. Most of these feeds are either not edible or not very palatable to human beings
- Pig grows fast and is a prolific breeder, farrowing 10 to 12 piglets at a time. It is capable of producing two litters per year under optimal management conditions
- The carcass return is quite high ie. 60-80 percent of live body weight
- With a small investment on building and equipment, proper feeding and sound disease control programme the farmer can profitably utilize his time and labour in this subsidiary occupation
- The faeces of pigs is used as a manure to maintain soil fertility
Pig farming- for whom?
- Small and landless farmers
- Part time earning for educated youth having agriculture as occupation
- Uneducated / Unemployed youth
- Farm women
Breeds of Animal Husbandry of Nagaland
The indigenous pig has been the basis used for pig production for a long period of time. It is small in size. Improved breeds are now being used for grading up the form the basis for pig production in the rural areas.
Veterinary & Department of Animal Husbandry of Nagaland Government
Animal Husbandry of Nagaland is a tradition with the Nagas and therefore, rearing of domestic animal such as Cattle, Mithun, Pig and Poultry birds play a significant role in the socio-economic development of the Nagas.
- Thus, the great responsibility of Veterinary & A.H. Department lies with matters relating to Livestock and Poultry development, prevention of livestock diseases, Diary Development, Feed & Fodder Development including livestock statistics of the state.
- In other words, the Veterinary & A.H. and Dairying sector also provides gainful self-employment opportunities to the ever-increasing Unemployment problems amongst the educated youths of the state to enable them to contribute family income.
- This climatic condition of Nagaland is quite suitable for livestock rearing and for which rearing of livestock has been an integral part of Naga life from time immemorial and symbolic to the health and wealth of a Naga family.
- The fact may be admitted that out of total Agricultural output value the contribution of livestock sector during 1997 at current prices is accounted for 9.40 percent only of the State Gross Domestic Products (GDP).
- In order to accelerate livestock industry during the 10th Five year Plan the focus of the department would be further intensified through appropriate techniques of breeding, feeding, health coverage and production oriented management programme in the coming years
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