Horticulture in Nagaland

Horticulture in Nagaland

The total area covered by horticultural crops in the state has been estimated at 42897 ha (2008-09). The fruits grown in the state range from tropical and sub-tropical fruits like banana, papaya, pineapple and citrus to temperate fruits like apple, pear, peach, plum, strawberry and even certain nut fruits. The state has rich diversity of different vegetable crops and both indigenous tropical vegetables and temperate vegetables are grown to a considerable extent. The major vegetables grown in the region are cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, knol-khol, radish, carrot, French bean and different cucurbitaceous crops. Among the flowering plants anthurium, roses, lillium, alstromeria, heliconia, and zantedeschia are introduced in the state. Tuber and rhizomatous crops like sweet potato, colocasia, ginger and turmeric grow abundantly in the state, while plantation crops like cashew nut, black pepper have been introduced recently in the state. Apart from these, underutilized crops like passion fruit, kiwi fruit, chow-chow and others are grown in some areas.

Land Holding and Land Use Pattern

The horticultural practices in state is still primitive and yet to see modernization and mechanization. 38% of the total area cultivated in the State falls under jhum and only 4% falls under permanent and irrigation fields. With the total area of about 16, 57,900 hectares of land, about 80% falls under hilly terrain and only 20% comes under gentle slope and plain area and only 2.59 % of the total area is under horticulture. Due to repeated jhuming of short duration cycle in the hills, the soil is subjected to heavy soil erosion as a result of which the fields are reduced and soil become very poor. Therefore, in order to bring this jhum land into Horticulture Development, it is proposed to bring more area under Area Expansion for Horticultural crops in order to convert the hilly areas into a settled permanent cultivation like fruits, vegetables, flowers, medicinal & aromatic plants.

Decadal growth of horticulture in Nagaland 

The total area under horticultural crops (fruits & vegetables) in the state is around 42.9 thousand hectare, which is around 2.59 % of the total geographical area of the state and it gives a total production of 327.13 thousand tones with a productivity of 7.63 t/ ha. The area under fruits has been increased from 13.6 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 19.27 thousand hectares during 2008-09 with a production of 168.9 and 191.32 thousand tones respectively. However, the area under vegetables has decreased during the same period. Under Horticulture Technology Mission cultivation of citrus, pineapple, passion fruit and banana through area expansion has been promoted by the Department of Horticulture, Govt. of Nagaland during 2004-10. Besides, mango, litchi, kiwi is focused during 2009- 10. Under integrated development of horticultural crops, The Horticulture Department, Govt. of Nagaland has covered 137 ha of large cardamom, 57 ha of passion fruit, 144 ha of citrus, 57 ha of betel vine, 56 ha of pineapple, 28 ha of cashew, 28 ha of ginger, and 49 ha of kiwifruit. The floriculture is gaining popularity in the state. However, this sector is basically based in urban areas of the state. During 2009-10, anthurium, roses, lillium alstromeria, heliconia, gerbera, and zantedeschia were grown in Hi-tech green houses in 4 districts of the state.

State horticulture nursery

The State Horticulture Nursery initiated series of developmental activities mainly focused on maintenance of accredited nurseries. The Year wise calendars of farm operations were actively executed as per the requirement of the crop under different progeny mother blocks. Besides farm developments and operations, the SHN have conducted several trainings and Farm visits for students and visitors from within and outside the state. Recently, under MIDH (CSS), the first ever Hi-Tech Nursery in the state also known as Semi-Automated Vegetable Seedling Production Unit was successfully installed and inaugurated by Shri. Jalaj Shrivastava (IAS), Additional Secretary, DAC & FW, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare Govt. of India. The Hi-Tech production unit has the capacity to produce 70,000 quality seedlings per unit batch which will serve as a boon to the farming community of the district.

Coconut Development Board

Coconut Development Board is a statutory body established by the Government of India for the integrated development of coconut production and utilization in the country with focus on productivity increase and product diversification. The Board functions under the administrative control of the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. The aim of the Coconut Development Board (CDB) is to assist the coconut farmers in coconut production, processing, marketing and export of value-added coconut products.

The foot-hill belts of Nagaland, specially bordering Assam having sub-tropical type of climates with adequate rainfall is ideal for coconut plantation. The survey conducted by the Coconut Development Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India had found about 15000 Ha. of land extending from Jalukie Area in Peren district to Tizit Valley area in Mon district suitable for Coconut plantation consisting of seven districts of the state.

Adoptive trials of Coconut plantation in these areas had proved successful. The farmers had also realized the beneficial of coconut plantation which has got high market demand and high cost returns and thus the demands for coconut seedlings are increasing year after year in the state. Under Horticulture Development programme, the Department is keeping a provision for procurement of Coconut seedling, inputs for development of the following district of Dimapur, Peren, Wokha, Mokokchung, Mon, Kohima and Longleng in the foothill area adjacent to Assam. During 2017-18, CDB had sanctioned an amount of Rs. 53.575 lakhs for coconut plantation and development related schemes in seven (7) districts of Nagaland.

Dragon Fruit cultivation

Dragon Fruit is famous in Thailand, Vietnam, Israel and Sri Lanka. In India, commercial cultivation of this fruit is picking up and in Nagaland some farmers and fruit lovers have initiated its cultivation.  The Dream Dragon Fruit Farm at Shitovi village in Dimapur district is the first farm where exotic Dragon Fruit is produced and sold by demand only. Ms. Lucy Ngullie Thomas has been growing Red, White and Yellow Dragon Fruits since 2013 besides other exotic fruits. The 5 hectares Dream Dragon Fruit Farm is well maintained and adopts all technical cultural practices. This is the only dragon fruit farm in the state which has healthy and well maintained Mother Plants of Red and White varieties producing cuttings for sales and propagation. The Dream Dragon Fruit Farm is an Accredited Nursery with 1 Star rating by the accrediting authority under Central Institute of Horticulture (CIH) and the owner is now capable to produce and sell dragon fruit cuttings to interested farmers throughout the country.

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