Climate of Nagaland
- Nagaland, the 16th State of the Indian Union, came into being on 1st. December, 1963.
- Nagaland with a geographical area of about 16,579 Sq. Km. lies between 25°60‟ and 27°40‟ North latitude and 93°20‟ and 95°15‟ East longitude.
- The state is bounded by Assam in the North and West, by Myanmar and Arunachal Pradesh in the East and by Manipur in the South.
- Nagaland, being one of the “eight Sisters” commonly called as the North-Eastern Region including Sikkim*, is a land of lush green forests, rolling mountains, enchanting valleys, swift flowing streams and of beautiful landscape.
Temperature and Rainfall Aspects of Climate of Nagaland
- Climate of Nagaland has a monsoon climate. The state enjoys a salubrious climate. Annual rainfall ranges around 70–100 inches (1,800–2,500 mm), concentrated in the months of May to September.
- Temperatures range from 70°F (21°C) to 104°F (40°C). In winter, temperatures do not generally drop below 39°F (4 °C), but frost is common at high elevations.
- Summer is the shortest season in the state that lasts only for a few months.
- The temperature during the summer season remains between 16°C (61°F) to 31°C (88 °F). Winter makes an early arrival and bitter cold and dry weather strikes certain regions of the state.
- The maximum average temperature recorded in the winter season is 24°C (75°F).
- Strong north-west winds blow across the state during the months of February and March.
- The Climate of Nagaland in general is controlled by its terrain features.
- It is hot to warm subtropical in areas with elevations of 1000 to 1200 m.
- The Climate of Nagaland environment is warm sub temperate in areas with elevations of 1200 m and above.
- The Climate of Nagaland as such is typical of a tropical country with heavy rainfall. Most of the heavy rainfall occurs during four months i.e. June to September.
- The rain during April to May is low.
- The temperature varies from 0°C in winter to about 40°C in summer depending on elevation.
- The average annual temperature ranges from 18°C to 20°C and 23°C to 25°C in the higher and lower elevations, respectively.
Classification of Climate of Nagaland based on Koppen-Geiger
|Humid subtropical climate||47||Cwa||Kohima, Mon, Wakching, Longching,
|Subtropical highland oceanic climate||11||Cwb||Tuensang, Chintang, Saddle, Shamator, Zunheboto,Fakim|
|Humid subtropical climate||5||Cfa||Dimapur, Naganimora, Naginimora, Barjan, Tuli|
Agro-Climatic Zone of Climate of Nagaland
- The Climate of Nagaland to a large extent is controlled by its undulating topographical terrain features.
- It is hot to warm sub-tropical in area with elevation of 1000-1200m above MSL.
- The foothill plains, sheltered valleys and the ranges are marked with climatic contrasts.
- The year is divided into four seasons viz.,
- Winter (December-February),
- Pre-monsoon (March-April),
- Monsoon (May-September)
- Retreating monsoon (October-November).
- The beginning of winter is marked by a steep fall in temperature during December. January is the coldest month.
- In February the temperature starts rising gradually.
- The winter winds are generally weak and variable.
- The average annual temperature ranges from 18°C-20°C to 23°C-25°C respectively in the higher and lower elevation.
- The monsoon lasts for five months from May to September with June, July and August being the wettest months.
- The following agro-climatic zones in Nagaland are divided into four zones:
- Hot per-humid climate
- Hot moist sub-humid climate
- Warm humid climate
- Warm per-humid climate
Climate Change aspect of Climate of Nagaland
- Climate Change has emerged as one of the most serious environmental and socio-economic concerns of our times.
- It is a global phenomenon with diverse local impacts likely to alter the distribution and quality of our natural resources and adversely affect the livelihood of the people specially the poor and marginalized communities.
- In 1992, India adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, global initiative to combat climate change.
- Article 3 of the UNFCCC states that “parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of future and present generations of human kind on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities.”
- A latecomer into the nation’s development process and with a per capita Green House Gas emission barely a fraction of the national average and the magnitude much below that of other industralised states of the country, the state’s economy is closely linked to its natural resource base and climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture and forestry.
- Hence, the state faces an increased risk of the negative impacts of climate change.
- The state would therefore adopt a climate friendly, equity based and sustainable developmental path taking into account our “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities”, and our regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances.
- A State Action Plan on Climate Change would be prepared within the ambit of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) albeit with modifications that suits the specific requirements of the state.
- A climate change cell should be set up to coordinate the gathering of information, conduct research and offer solutions to the problems with regard to food security, change in rainfall patterns etc.
- Climate change initiatives to be started with the cooperation of the civil society at large to achieve:
- Energy efficiency.
- Harness renewable energy sources.
- Adaptive management in agriculture.
- Promote climate friendly technologies.
- Launch campaign on 3Rs-recycle, reduce, reuse
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