River and drainage system of Nagaland
- Nagaland, the smallest hilly state situated at the extreme north-eastern end of India, lies between 25° 6′ and 27° 4′ latitude, North of Equator and between the Longitudinal line 93° 20’ E and 95° 15’E.
- The state shares its boundary with Assam on the West, Myanmar on the East, Arunachal Pradesh and parts of Assam on the North and Manipur on the South.
- The major rivers of Nagaland are Doyang, Dikhu, Dhansiri, Tizu, Tsurong, Nanung, Tsurang or Disai, Tsumok, Menung, Dzu, Langlong, Zunki, Likimro, Lanye, Dzuza and Manglu.
- All these rivers are dendritic in nature.
- As a river flows, it carries along material or debris, called its load.
- A river’s load includes rocks, stones and other large particles, which are washed along the river bed. Finer particles float in the water.
- A river grows larger as it collects water from more tributaries along its course. The river ends at a mouth.
- In larger rivers there is often also a wider floodplain shaped by flood waters over-topping the channel.
- Floodplains may be very wide in relation to the size of the river channel.
- Nagaland is dissected by a number of seasonal and perennial rivers and rivulets.
- Of the rivers, Dhansiri, Doyang and Dikhu flow westward into the Brahmaputra.
- The Tizu River, on the other hand, flows towards east and joins the Chindwin River in Burma.
- It is the longest river in the state originating from the Japfü Hill near the Southern slope of Mao in Manipur and moves in a south west direction passing through Kohima district and flows northward into Zunheboto and Wokha District.
- It passes through a great part of Wokha District and flows south westerly into Dhansiri in Sibsagar, District of Assam.
- The main tributaries of Doyang are Chubi River which flows southward from Mokokchung District and Nzhu River, originating from Nerhema area of Kohima district and flows through Miphong in Tseminyu area and finally pours itself to Doyang.
- River Dikhu, which has a total length of about 160 km, originates from Nuroto Hill area in Zunheboto district.
- The river traverses towards north along the border of Mokokchung and Tuensang districts.
- The main tributaries of river Dikhu are Yangyu of Tuensang district and Nanung in the Langpangkong range in Mokokchung district.
- The river flows further northward and leaves the hill near Naginimora and finally merges with the Brahmaputra River in the plains of Assam.
- Dhansiri flows through the southwestern part of the state through Rangapahar-Dimapur Plains of Dimapur District.
- This river receives almost all the western and southern drainages of Nagaland.
- Its main tributaries are river Dzuza and Diphu.
- At the extreme southwest of the state, it assumes a northwardly course forming a natural boundary with North Cachar Hills of Assam which finally drains into the Brahmaputra.
- The Tizu River forms an important drainage system in the eastern part of the state.
- It originates from the central part of the state and runs through a northeast direction flows through Zunheboto, Phek district and empties itself in the Chindwin River of Myanmar.
- The main tributaries of River Tizu are river Zunki, Lanye and Likimro.
- Milak is another important river which flows through Mokokchung District.
- One of its main tributary is Tsurong.
- The Zunki River which is the biggest tributary of Tizu, starts from the northeastern part of Changdong forest in the south of Teku and flows in southernly direction towards Noklak, Shamator and Kiphire and finally joins Tizu below Kiphire.
River and drainage system of Nagaland
Drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin. They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land.
- River is the biggest source of water.
- Rivers provide water to drink, irrigation, electricity, cook, clean things and easy & cheap transportation.
- It is also a source of fresh water that flowing naturally towards an ocean, lake, sea or another river.
- Rivers flow in channels.
- The bottom of channel is called the bed and sides of the channel are called the banks.
- Sometimes a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water.
- Rivers begin at their source in higher ground such as mountains or hills, where rain water or melting snow collects and forms tiny streams.
- When one stream meets another and they merge together, the smaller steam is known as a tributary.
- It takes many tributary streams to form a river.
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